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Neonic Effect on Grooming Behavior - Nuria Morfin

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  • Neonic Effect on Grooming Behavior - Nuria Morfin

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    Neonic Effect on Grooming Behavior - Nuria Morfin
    Abstract: Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are exposed to a number of stressors, but little is known about the effect of their interaction on behaviours associated with defense mechanisms. This study evaluated the interaction between sublethal doses of a neurotoxin, clothianidin, and the ectoparasite Varroa destructor by assessing grooming behaviour, the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and DWV levels in the brains of bees performing grooming behaviour. An increase of DWV levels was observed in bees treated with the lowest dose of clothianidin, and in bees parasitized by V. destructor. The highest dose of clothianidin showed the highest number of up-regulated DEGs and an effect on biological pathways related with neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer’s, which could explain disruption in neural processes affecting the ability of the bees to perform intense grooming. Also, an interaction between clothianidin and V. destructor reduced the proportion of bees performing intense grooming behaviour and a reduced the number of up and down-regulated DEGs. The study revealed a complex interaction between clothianidin and V. destructor that resulted in non-additive effects.
    1. Stressors
      1. Biotic
        1. Pathogens
          1. V. Destructor
            1. Effect is Reduced amicites (like our lymphocytes in humans)
          2. Viruses - DWV
            1. Decreased longevity, etc.
          3. AFB, EFB
      2. Abiotic
        1. Weather
        2. Chemicals
          1. Insecticides
            1. Organophosphate
            2. Carbamates
            3. Pyrethroids
            4. Formamidines
            5. Neonics
              1. Clothianidin
              2. ACh agonist
            6. New ones always presenting
    2. Neonic Exposure
      1. Coated seeds, insecticides are in all the plant tissue - systemic
    3. Defense
      1. Individual immunity
        1. Cellular
          1. Haemocytes
        2. Humoral
          1. AMPs
      2. Social
        1. Hygienic
        2. Grooming
          1. Social
          2. Individual
    4. Individual Grooming
      1. Effective to restrain v. Destructor
      2. Intensity is important
      3. Genotypes vary in ability
      4. Genes associated with grooming were identified (neurexin)
      5. Selection based on traits with grooming in breeding
    5. Test Methods
      1. 4 groups - combos of Control and neonics and varroa
      2. NEB(newly emerged bee)<24h old
      3. N (sample number)= 40
      4. 7 days length
      5. 1 mite placed on the bee
      6. Classified or no or light/intense grooming
      7. Frozen for molecular exam
    6. Results
      1. Only the highest dose of neonic breaks intense grooming
      2. Varroa In combo with neonic was worst outcome
      3. Lowest dose of neonics resulted in highest death from DWV - reason for this unknown
      4. Neonics associated with highest up-regulated genes and least down regulated
    7. Discussion
      1. Up and down regulated - Combo of both neonic and varroa the worst.
    Last edited by atollerson; 09-17-2019, 04:42 AM.
    Kalispell, Montana Zone 4a
    Certified Master Beekeeper